Principal investigator: Dr Andy Chadwick (BGS) specialises in subsurface geological processes and has published over 100 scientific papers and a number of books on subjects ranging from global tectonics and deep earth structure to sedimentary basin evolution and CCS. He has worked on CCS since 1997 and has written over 50 papers on the subject, focussing on time-lapse seismic monitoring, predictive flow simulations and pressure evolution in aquifers. He has also provided consultant advice to the European Commission, the UK government and the governments of Victoria and Western Australia in Australia and Alberta in Canada on technical and regulatory aspects of CCS. Over the past few years Andy has had a principal investigator/co-investigator role on a number of major EU/industry CCS research projects and is also co-investigator in the BIGCCS Centre for Environment-Friendly Energy Research, funded by the Research Council of Norway. Andy is on the steering committee of the IEAGHG monitoring network and is consultant editor for the journal Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology.

Co-investigator: Dr David Noy (BGS) specialises in the physics of fluid flow. He has worked extensively on single and multi-phase flow systems for both nuclear waste disposal and CCS. In recent times he has focussed on research into pressure build-up and plume migration in CO2 storage reservoirs, including important recent publications on predictive flow modelling linked to 4D seismics.

Co-investigator: Dr Gareth Williams (BGS) has been working on time-lapse seismic analysis for CCS for several years, including the development of advanced algorithms. He has published on a range of topics from deep subsurface structure to CCS including recent work on spectral analysis of the Sleipner seismic datasets.

Co-investigator: Dr Jim White (BGS) has qualifications in physics and seismic geophysics. He has recently commenced work on time-lapse seismic analysis in CCS, is heavily involved in BGS research input into the BIGCCS Centre (Norway) and has already contributed to a number of CCS publications.

Co-investigator: Dr Mark Chapman (Edinburgh) has 12 years of professional experience working on the development of innovative techniques in applied geophysics. His core expertise is in rock physics and seismic anisotropy, stretching from theoretical advances and development of new models to application to seismic data analysis. His career has been spent with the Edinburgh Anisotropy Project (EAP), a world leading industrial-academic research consortium supported by around 15 oil and geophysical service companies. In 2012 EAP received the Society of Exploration Geophysicists Distinguished Achievement Award, that society's highest honour for organisations and research groups. Mark has published over 100 papers in journals and industrial conference proceedings and is currently serving as a Distinguished Lecturer for the European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers (EAGE). With colleagues, he received the Caignard Award from EAGE in 2007 for his work linking attenuation anisotropy to fracture properties in an oilfield in Oman. Also in 2007, he and colleagues received honourable mention for best paper in 'The Leading Edge' for his work on the novel application of spectral decomposition techniques to improve fluid identification from reflection data. In 2009, with Morten Jakobsen, he received honourable mention for 'Best Paper in Geophysics' for development of a unified theory of seismic wave propagation in fractured, fluid-saturated rocks.

Co-investigators: Drs. Clair Gough and Sarah Mander (Manchester) both have strong track records in research on public and stakeholder perceptions of CCS within an interdisciplinary setting and in the context of broader integrated assessment processes. Between them they have led numerous studies within this field including media analysis, citizen panels, focus groups and surveys, many of which have involved working with geological and other physical scientists. Selected recent relevant projects include:

  • COOLTRANS: Dense Phase CO2 Pipeline Transportation (2011–2014) — National Grid
  • Ethical Attitudes and Underground CO2 storage (2010–2011) — IEAGHG R&D programme
  • CASSEM: CO2 Aquifer Storage Site Evaluation and Monitoring (2009–2010) — Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
  • UK Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Consortium (2006–2009) — NERC
  • Integrated Assessment of Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK (2002–2005) — Tyndall Centre
  • Public perceptions of underground coal gasification (2003)

Co-investigator: Dr Doug Angus (Leeds) is a research fellow in seismology at the School of Earth & Environment, University of Leeds and has been involved in seismic research for over 15 years, publishing on a diverse range of problems including petroleum and carbon storage. Doug's primary research is seismic modelling, but recently he has been working on integrating geophysics, hydromechanical simulation and rock physics for advanced characterisation of geological reservoirs to improve monitoring techniques. He has developed significant expertise in seismic modelling (e.g. microseismic waveform simulation and elastic wave propagation in complex 3D anisotropic, heterogeneous media) and has worked on linking hydromechanical simulation with seismic modelling for hydrocarbon reservoir applications, which involved quantifying the sensitivity of seismic attributes and providing constraints on the feasibility and limitations of conventional (i.e. 4D seismic analysis) and novel (e.g. microseismicity) approaches to characterisation. He developed algorithms to generate realistic seismic models that incorporate the effects of stress, seismic anisotropy and heterogeneity, fluid saturation, and fractures for a range of scale lengths as well as predict microseismic failure. This research allowed the bridging of the gap between seismic observation and seismic prediction, and enabled developing skills and experience in multi-disciplinary research as well as work with industry partners. Selected relevant projects include:

  • IPEGG: integrating petroleum engineering geomechanics and geophysics for reservoir characterisation
  • GESER: integrated geomechanics and seismic modelling of tight-gas reservoirs
  • FRACGAS (integrated geomechanics and seismic modelling of hydraulic fracture stimulation

Co-investigator: Dr Angus Best (NOC) leads rock physics research including the development of novel laboratory measurement technologies for hydrocarbon reservoir studies. He has published over 30 journal papers focussed on the relationships between seismic and reservoir rock properties for application to seismic exploration, reservoir characterisation and monitoring. His research has shown how elastic wave attenuation in sandstones depends on clay content and pore fluid viscosity, complementary to the standard velocity-rock relations used by industry. Since establishing the NOC rock physics research laboratory in 2004, he has led industry funded projects on, for example: hydrothermal dolomites, coal measures, reservoir sands, and volcanic reservoir rocks. He has studied seismic anisotropy in sandstones and carbonates and developed novel synthetic silica-cemented sandstones with controlled fracture densities for studies of frequency-dependent seismic anisotropy. He led the development of a joint ultrasonic and electrical resistivity measurement system for small rock samples which was used to demonstrate strong correlations between elastic wave velocity, electrical formation factor, pressure sensitivity and clay content.